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  1. Antoniou SA, Agresta F, Garcia Alamino JM, Berger D, Berrevoet F, Brandsma HT, Bury K, Conze J, Cuccurullo D, Dietz UA et al: European Hernia Society guidelines on prevention and treatment of parastomal hernias. Hernia 2017

  2. Anderson, R.M et al. Incidence and risk factors for parastomal bulging in patients with ileostomy or colostomy: a register-based study using data from the Danish Stoma Database Capital Region. 2017. Colorectal Dis. 20, 331-340.

  3. (2018) Prevention and treatment of parastomal hernia: a position statement on behalf of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland. ACPGBI Parastomal Hernia Group. Colorectal Dis, 20: 5-19.​

  4. Randall J, Lord B, Fulham J, Soin B: Parastomal hernias as the predominant stoma complication after laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2012, 22(5):420-423.

  5. Sohn YJ, Moon SM, Shin US, Jee SH. Incidence and risk factors of parastomal hernia. J Korean Soc Coloproctol. 2012;28(5):241-246.

  6. Association of Stoma Care Nurses UK: Stoma Care National Clinical Guidelines. In. UK; 2016.

  7. Kojima K, Nakamura T, Sato T, Matsubara Y, Naito M, Yamashita K, Watanabe M: Risk factors for parastomal hernia after abdominoperineal resection for rectal cancer. Asian J Endosc Surg 2017, 10(3):276-281.

  8. Thompson MJ, Trainor B: Incidence of parastomal hernia before and after a prevention programme. Gastrointestinal Nursing 2005, 2(2):23-27.

  9. North J: Early intervention, parastomal hernia and quality of life: a research study. Br J Nurs 2014, 23(5):S14-18.

  10. Thompson MJ: Parastomal hernia: incidence, prevention and treatment strategies. Br J Nurs 2008, 17(2):S16, S18-20.

  11. Beeken RJ, Haviland JS, Taylor C, Campbell A, Fisher A, Grimmett C, Ozakinci G, Slater S, Wilson I, Hubbard G: Smoking, alcohol consumption, diet and physical activity of people with a stoma, stoma-related concerns, and desire for lifestyle advice: A United Kingdom survey. BMC Public Health in press.

  12. Russell S: Physical activity and exercise after stoma surgery: overcoming the barriers. Br J Nurs 2017, 26(5):S20-S26.

  13. Russell S: Parastomal Hernia and physical activity. Are patients getting the right advice? Br J Nurs 2017, 26 (17).

  14. Leeuw, M.; Goossens, M. L. E. J. B.; Linton, S. J.; Crombez, G.; Boersma, K.; Vlaeyen, J. W. S. (2006). The Fear-Avoidance Model of Musculoskeletal Pain: Current State of Scientific Evidence. Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 30 (1): 77–94.

  15. Bland, C. Nurse activity to prevent and support patients with a parastomal hernia. Gastrointestinal Nursing. 2015. Vol 13 (10) 16-24.

  16. Resources for integrated care. Using Person Centred Language. Tip Sheet. (accessed 31/7/20)

  17. Royal College of GPs website. About Person-centred care (accessed 31/7/2020)

  18. Online article. Social Care Institute for Excellence. Person-centred care. (accessed 31/7/2020)

  19. Hubbard G, Beeken RJ, Taylor C, Watson AJM, Munro J, Goodman W: A physical activity intervention to improve the quality of life of patients with a stoma: a feasibility study protocol. Pilot Feasibility Stud 2019, 5:78.

  20. Bullo V, Bergamin M, Gobbo S, Sieverdes JC, Zaccaria M, Neunhaeuserer D, Ermolao A: The effects of Pilates exercise training on physical fitness and wellbeing in the elderly: A systematic review for future exercise prescription. Prev Med 2015, 75:1-11.

  21. Campbell KL, Winters-Stone KM, Wiskemann J, May AM, Schwartz AL, Courneya KS, Zucker DS, Matthews CE, Ligibel JA, Gerber LH et al: Exercise Guidelines for Cancer Survivors: Consensus Statement from International Multidisciplinary Roundtable. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2019, 51(11):2375-2390.

  22. Me+recovery from ConvaTec. Patient Lifestyle Programme. Available from (accessed 31/7/20)

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